English
聯系我們
網站地圖
郵箱
舊版回顧



“嫦娥”奔月的“煩惱” 太空中存在的“腐蝕”問題

文章來源:金屬研究所   發布時間:2019-04-23  【字號:     】  

  浩瀚無垠的宇宙中蘊藏著許多未知的奧秘,它仿佛擁有著巨大的魔力,吸引著人類不斷探索。月球,是人類太空探險的第一步。但由于潮汐鎖定現象,月球圍繞地球的公轉周期與其自轉周期相同,導致人類在地球上始終只能觀測到月球的“正面”。因此,多年以來,人類對月球背面的了解非常有限。直到2019年1月3日,嫦娥四號探測器自主著陸月球背面的馮·卡門撞擊坑內,實現人類首次月背軟著陸,并傳回第一張月球背面的近距離影像。

  但“嫦娥”的奔月之旅其實并不輕松,甚至可謂是困難重重。其中,太空中材料的腐蝕就是令科學家們比較頭疼的問題。

  說到腐蝕,大家可能并不陌生,因為在我們生活中,它每時每刻都在發生。例如:廚房鐵鍋的生銹,碳酸飲料對牙齒的腐蝕,街道護欄的風化開裂等等。可以說,腐蝕無時無刻不在影響著我們的生活。但有人可能會問,太空既然是高真空環境、沒有水的存在,航天器應該不會像地球上那樣腐蝕吧?但令人意想不到的是,與“溫順”的地球環境相比,真實的太空對航天器的“外衣”甚至威脅更大。

  舉一個真實的例子,“和平號”空間站作為美俄國際空間站合作計劃的一部分,是蘇聯建造的第一個軌道空間站(蘇聯解體后歸俄羅斯)。據統計,它實際在軌工作的十多年時間里,共發生近2000處故障,其中70%的外體遭到腐蝕。

  那么,究竟是什么原因造成太空中航天材料的腐蝕失效呢?“嫦娥”奔月途中,到底會面臨怎樣嚴峻的考驗呢?我們首先從太空中的環境說起。

  其實,太空的真實環境遠沒有科幻電影中描述的那般美好,到處都存在著人類肉眼所看不見的宇宙輻射。它既包括宇宙大爆炸后所殘留的熱輻射,也包括其他天體向外釋放的電磁波、高能粒子甚至是宇宙射線。它們對人體的危害可以說是致命的。但由于地球磁場與大氣層對宇宙輻射的偏折和吸收作用,才能保證人類在地球上的正常生活。可是,一旦脫離兩者的保護,完全暴露在這種強輻射環境中,即便是穿著厚重的宇航服,也不能完全避免宇宙輻射對人體的傷害。當然,面對太空中如此高強度的輻射,航天器也會“深受其害”。

  其中,太陽所釋放的紫外線輻射是引起航天器腐蝕失效的原因之一。盡管紫外線只占太陽光的5%左右,但是能量卻很大。太空中,由于缺少地球磁場及大氣層的“保護屏障”,航天器表面的高分子材料在吸收紫外線后會引發聚合物的自我氧化、降解。另外,紫外線中的單個光子所具有的能量足以破壞聚合物間的化學鍵,使其斷裂、交聯,從而導致聚合物材料性能的急劇下降。因此,為了盡可能的削弱宇宙輻射對航天器的影響,人類航天任務的發射甚至會刻意避開太陽耀斑活動頻繁的時間周期。

  此外,當航天器剛剛脫離地球表面大氣層的保護,首先接觸的便是低地球軌道環境(距離地球200-700km),該區域所處的殘余大氣中,氧含量約占總組分的80%。眾所周知,氧元素是造成材料腐蝕加速的重要條件。而在太陽短波輻射的光致分解作用下,氧分子轉變為高活性的原子氧,由于處于高真空及極低的氣體總壓狀態下,氧原子與其他粒子發生碰撞的幾率很小,導致氧原子很難再次復合成分子態。當高速運行的航天器與原子氧發生劇烈的摩擦、碰撞時,航天器表面的聚合物材料會發生高溫氧化反應,使其電學、光學以及機械性能等方面發生退化,甚至會引起明顯的剝蝕效應,嚴重影響航天器的運行安全。

  在“嫦娥”的太空旅行中,除了要面臨宇宙輻射及原子氧的威脅外,還需要接受極為“苛刻”的溫度挑戰。自宇宙大爆炸起,太空中的溫度便開始逐漸降低,在經歷了150多億年的演變后,目前的太空正處于極寒的環境中,平均溫度只有約-270.3℃。并且,真空環境中,由于缺少空氣的傳熱和散熱,航天器表面受陽光直接照射的一面,其溫度將高達100℃以上,而陽光照射不到的一面,溫度則可低至-200℃。這種極端的溫度條件和大幅度的冷熱交變會影響材料的應力,并可能造成航天器“外衣”的斷裂、分層甚至脆化,縮短其安全服役壽命。

  通過上面的介紹,我們可以發現,在如此復雜的太空環境中,航天器的腐蝕根本無法避免。并且,有關數據顯示,一架航天飛機的維修成本甚至遠高于其制作成本和發射成本。因此,采用科學的手段抑制航天器在太空中的腐蝕問題勢在必行。

  首先便是選擇和發展耐熱、耐極低溫、耐熱震、抗疲勞、抗腐蝕的高性能材料,世界各國的科學家也正為此努力探索。此外,結合不同材料的用途及其實際服役環境,采用合適的表面處理技術顯得更為重要。因為性能優異的防護涂層不僅可以提高航天材料的功能性,包括耐高溫、隔熱、抗腐蝕、抗氧化、抗輻射等,同時也可以延長航天器的使用壽命,節省維修成本。然而,與地面裝備表面防護不同的是,由于有機涂層在真空環境中會出現放氣、老化脫落等一系列問題,航天材料一般不會使用有機涂層進行防腐,而主要采用的表面技術包括化學/電化學沉積、化學/電化學氧化、無機涂層以及特種薄膜制備等等。

  鎂合金,作為地球上最輕的金屬結構材料,擁有比強度高、導電性強、電磁屏蔽性好等優點,在航天領域的使用上具有先天的優勢。為了實現減重的目的,我們熟知的神州、天宮、嫦娥等系列航天器中,均大量使用鎂合金。

  以此次發射的“嫦娥四號”探測器為例,其中,探月雷達、月球車巡視器、著陸器上許多重要電子設備的箱體結構所采用的就是鎂合金,主要利用其減重、導電及優異的電磁屏蔽性能,可以有效地削弱外界電磁場對核心電路系統的干擾。但鎂合金化學性質活潑,耐蝕性差,甚至在地面存放期間便會出現嚴重的腐蝕。因此,必須采用合理的表面處理方式,在滿足其導電性及電磁屏蔽性能的基礎上,有效提高其耐腐蝕能力。

  中國科學院金屬研究所在這方面做了很多工作,科研團隊自主研發的鎂合金鍍層具有防腐、導電、電磁屏蔽等多功能性,滿足了航天器若干的使用要求,并在天宮、嫦娥等多個型號的航天器上使用。

  “嫦娥”的奔月成功只是人類探索太空的階段性勝利,宇宙中仍有無數未知的奧秘等待著人類去揭曉。在未來的探索道路中,可能會暴露出更多太空中的“腐蝕”問題。讓我們攜手并進,砥礪前行,一步一步追尋屬于我們的“太空夢”。




(責任編輯:侯茜)

附件:

專題推薦

相關新聞


© 1996 - 中國科學院 版權所有 京ICP備05002857號  京公網安備110402500047號  聯系我們

地址:北京市三里河路52號 郵編:100864

网易彩票www.087wy.com www.651351.com | www.p83.com | www.mn94.com | www.3894.vip | www.8965.xyz | www.0906.org | www.9692.org | www.356038.com | www.426755.com | www.633873.com | 641546.com | www.cai957.com | www.ej4.com | www.z52.xyz | www.n49.com | www.65vw.com | www.95693.com | www.755003.com | 920938.com | www.172953.com | www.464001.com | www.337381.com | www.525598.com | www.965874.com | www.966369.com | www.880357.com | www.840813.com | www.333742.com | www.513889.com | www.75715.com | www.099878.com | 276654.com | www.724007.com | www.212248.com | www.004164.com | www.274392.com | www.362097.com | 313366.com | qy94.com | www.9511.in | www.116231.com | www.368401.com | 112135.com | www.kc90.com | www.98612.cc | www.8149.cc | www.444722.com | www.560602.com | www.027005.com | 1956.cc | 778584.com | www.sg08.com | www.1111.host | www.131161.com | www.52536.cc | www.529250.com | www.664797.com | 984974.com | www.733342.com | 064088.com | 690326.com | www.138313.com | www.292339.com | www.672308.com | www.6589.cn | www.8423.vip | www.333721.com | www.9077.loan | www.73982.com | www.fj67.com | www.3313.biz | www.yb26.com | www.33857.com | www.762318.com | www.05wh.com | www.51900.com | www.448888.com | www.711181.com | www.874930.com | www.bn33.com | www.151082.com | www.508424.com | www.131548.com | 964872.com | www.ni27.com | www.086261.com | 05524.cc | 331502.com | www.729432.com | www.74500.com | www.125888.com | www.226586.com | www.312193.com | www.519786.com | www.cp426.com | www.13991.com | www.035908.com | www.155977.com | www.507774.com | www.774841.com | www.882471.com | www.921751.com | www.936146.com | 951545.com | 众彩www.608520.com | www.031.win | www.177817.com | www.785516.com | www.931812.com | 958740.com | www.bf49.com | www.r20.biz | www.021334.com | www.070523.com | 597217.com | 981489.com | www.v09.org | www.782640.com | www.886810.com | www.01039.com | www.210047.com | www.254429.com | www.427678.com | www.26hx.com | www.1122.win | www.108806.com | www.356744.com | www.854007.com | www.cai1862.com | www.397073.com | www.997774.com | www.987460.com | www.990739.com | 311202.com | www.bf20.com | www.1hf.com | www.515630.com | www.22956.cc | www.007567.com | www.227579.com | www.383738.com | www.503812.com | www.598293.com | www.652656.com | www.686277.com | www.759508.com | www.888468.com | www.925713.com | www.949813.com | www.996609.com | 040305.com | 846459.com | 986674.com | www.387707.com | 大赢家彩票平台www.937065.com | www.si87.com | www.pw11.com | www.6vc.com | www.21368.com | www.55073.com | www.213769.com | www.269456.com | www.279357.com | www.306555.com | www.323551.com | www.315986.com | www.368648.com | www.444541.com | www.576900.com | www.633730.com | www.723123.com | www.769022.com | www.767011.com | www.778462.com | www.799171.com | www.817322.com | www.833065.com | www.838109.com | www.835267.com | www.267789.com | 970553.com | 大赢家彩票平台www.597933.com | www.cai5444.com | www.fw27.com | www.do57.com | www.mn27.com | www.fr80.com | www.mj37.com | www.t25.biz | www.15.vip | www.34rl.com | www.20qi.com | www.95vm.com | www.9443.me | www.29811.com | www.43674.com | www.59221.cc | www.29625.cc | www.30350.com | www.34752.com | www.58661.cc | www.46614.com | www.40016.com | www.60055.com | www.000743.com | www.200144.com | www.212680.com | www.308117.com | www.425966.com | www.420485.com | www.458021.com | www.552252.com | www.567774.com | www.706908.com | www.757312.com | www.782125.com | www.801035.com | www.326022.com | www.312538.com | www.166067.com | www.387342.com | www.828239.com | www.882405.com | 363913.com | 747636.com | www.3133.biz | www.499973.com | www.3051.org | www.30513.com | www.245981.com | www.373718.com | www.832297.com | www.895488.com | 652665.com | www.720023.com | www.750877.com | 073912.com | 瑞彩网www.809215.com | www.af21.com | www.32eb.com | www.64lc.com | www.58077.com | www.537776.com | www.015867.com | www.699819.com | www.cp5538.com | www.1fs.cc | www.6718.bid | www.665108.com | 989607.com | www.1oc.com | www.9603.vip | www.8262.vip | www.416026.com | www.651416.com | www.uq29.com | www.027042.com | www.66671.cc | www.51473.com | www.52242.com | www.432123.com | www.708.com | www.973464.com | 021219.com | 048833.com | www.21972.cc | www.0560.cn | www.54709.com | 333662.com | www.98237.cc | 839337.com | www.072358.com | www.168961.com | www.900906.com | www.956995.com | www.tyc88.com | 幸运彩票www.5095z.com | www.gd46.com | www.83vk.com | www.73ie.com | www.1469.cn | 006425.com | 212146.com | www.296655.com | www.426132.com | www.74195.com | www.26007.com | www.88615.com | www.135656.com | www.cw29.com | www.169608.com | www.870475.com | if83.com | 994201.com | www.nr38.com | www.40oo.com | www.4555.vip | www.05004.com | www.53500.cc | www.217908.com | www.390021.com | 072693.com | 604044.com | 凤凰彩票www.01063.com | 344568.com | 738131.com | www.978854.com | www.886370.com | www.746425.com | www.573665.com | www.366395.com | www.226604.com | www.071133.com | www.70135.com | www.3918.cn | www.xf40.com | www.957359.com | www.679687.com | www.568491.com | www.639007.com | www.789275.com | www.861600.com | www.rc21.com | 357752.cc | 727686.com | www.61296.cc | www.015832.com | www.169630.com | www.954874.com | www.967216.com | www.18393.com | www.255235.com | www.423794.com | www.508413.com | www.586590.com | www.813960.com | www.777728.com | www.697021.com | www.798533.com | www.199250.com | www.681672.com | 893901.com | 1811.me | www.pb16.com | www.066217.com | www.69710.com | www.055789.com | 892719.com | www.1229.vip | www.979758.com | www.19407.cc | www.089014.com | www.253821.com | www.56qh.com | www.8486.tv | www.72296.com | 633506.com | www.jb16.com | 496936.com | 977284.com | www.966964.com | www.082.date | 金冠彩票www.c4527.com | www.nj30.com | www.8882.online | www.1358.cm | www.67314.com | www.260104.com | www.972520.com | www.884105.com | www.bst818.com | www.77uz.com | www.9022.org | www.8467.com | www.19669.cc | www.691859.com | 415258.com | www.60ow.com | www.u33.cc | www.640435.com | 563051.com | 165588.com | www.39nn.com | www.63gv.com | www.39ps.com | www.1794.vip | www.4930.xyz | www.3216.cc | www.3787.bid | www.92270.com | www.078007.com | www.sq45.com | www.ub98.com | www.65si.com | www.771359.com | www.028717.com | www.913715.com | 022031.com | 45681.com | www.945148.com | www.xm62.com | www.96839.cc | www.364566.com | www.767720.com | www.887946.com | www.92ye.com | www.26898.cc | 500彩票网www.868422.com | www.887.xyz | www.7738.org | www.211685.com | www.048026.com | www.059661.com | www.rg22.cc | www.63bn.com | www.7189.vip | www.647518.com | www.301144.com | www.243125.com | www.293895.com | www.150996.com | www.381846.com | www.844877.com | www.iz40.com | www.r78.shop | www.5606.vip | www.92tc.com | www.uu02.com | 493823.com | 397502.com | www.gd23.com | www.86uw.com | www.354568.com | www.268855.com | www.454410.com | 193105.com | 874408.com | 751413.com | 279735.com | www.ln20.com | www.22zz.cc | www.785355.com | www.74678.cc | www.087716.com | www.151710.com | www.sy69.cc | 245684.com | www.1gs.cc | www.q79.club | www.tn87.com | www.nb2.cc | 500万彩票www.35155x.com | PK彩票www.534554.com | www.88247.cc | www.41599.com | www.17326.cc | www.4016.cm | www.1154.pw | www.811792.com | www.611487.com | www.969284.com | www.861575.com | www.13524.com | www.74637.com | www.72538.com | www.89057.com | ml40.com | 79700.com | 109294.com | 381492.com | www.890185.com | www.963940.com | 449144.com | www.919647.com | 530329.com | www.72pv.com | www.9935.xyz | www.48310.com | www.01399.com | www.60373.com | www.152601.com | www.722631.com | www.qh73.com | www.900353.com | pu8.com | www.wh73.com | www.525379.com | cp2626.com | 99080.com | www.pc | 728535.com | www.117.live | www.48319.com | www.300080.cc | www.916308.com | www.27292.com | 16541.com | 347937.com | www.959719.com | www.707952.com | 876803.com | cai0003.com | 949284.com | 371151.com | www.338781.com | www.306344.com | www.8089.cc | www.921169.com | www.7334.in | www.692084.com | www.733064.com | www.618641.com | www.88051.com | www.66787.cc | www.186038.com | www.443020.com | 41818.com | 984281.com | www.996288.com | www.960001.com | www.781129.com | 623848.com | 631921.com | 325692.com | 385074.com | www.421764.com | www.577635.com | www.676197.com | www.998624.com | 670055.com | 309005.com--954455.com | www.992447.com | www.879592.com | www.976028.com | www.880720.com | www.763776.com | www.860094.com | www.824404.com | www.688594.com | www.655867.com | da83.com | 146369.com | www.f50.com | www.18es.com | 231751.com | js3311.com | 029107.com | 258092.com | 971845.com | www.998435.com | www.940012.com | www.831660.com | www.672626.com | www.792574.com | www.689037.com | www.632531.com | www.720718.com | www.681745.com | www.bp44.com | www.090.cc | www.5623.bid | www.282675.com | www.172357.com | www.170875.com | www.264624.com | www.773602.com | www.668602.com | 356104.com | www.959502.com | www.xv19.com | www.hn43.com | www.8351.top | www.3678.biz | www.7557.loan | www.329513.com | 090628.com | 299716.com | 289233.com | 746148.com | 092717.com | www.965011.com | 025392.com | 06121.com | www.01960.com | 678009.com | www.4de.cc | www.6584.xyz | www.xw32.com | 凤凰彩票www.88266w.com | www.16dh.com | www.lq29.com | www.a45.top | www.86315.cc | www.967191.com | www.801110.com | www.8770.vip | www.126947.com | www.070872.com | www.616734.com | www.525666.cc | www.412353.com | www.731552.com | www.678475.com | 129907.com | 250356.com | www.977195.com | www.947666.com | 400349.com | 686355.com | 04998.cc | 872065.com | www.xml400.com | 628739.com | www.630282.com | www.334200.cc | www.112408.com | www.040350.com | www.033702.com | www.15504.com | www.5640.vip | www.36dw.cc | www.24266.com | www.49894.com | www.6211.cc | www.1983.org | www.1722.vip | www.53137.cc | www.24063.cc | www.026445.com | www.223028.com | 342189.com | 830316.com | 011242.com | 99069.com | 861370.com | 271960.com | www.65xg.com | www.d20.pw | www.cf0.com | www.ge27.com | www.1vy.com | www.71xj.com | 818合彩www.www.8000hc.com | 282409.com | 423178.com | www.947109.com | 338346.com | www.662086.com | www.600036.com | www.473100.com | www.386301.com | www.444490.com | www.383230.com | www.391221.com | www.323711.com | 991944.com | www.014510.com | www.621.hk | www.0016.pw | www.cai628.cc | 266820.com | www.291596.com | www.20170.com | www.157830.com | www.90fp.com | www.ad3.com | 天天彩票www.106395.com | www.870505.com | cai3737.com | 035552.com | www.61779.cc | www.931589.com | www.881029.com | www.2988.com | www.nb56.com | www.q95.com | www.189989.com | 479668.com | 717977.com | www.188264.com | www.032967.com | www.004993.com | www.30055.cc | www.6526.cn | www.20ma.com | 500彩票www.342677.com | www.gz79.com | www.4167.me | www.yx30.com | www.53723.cc | www.1925.net | www.v22.host | 528716.com | www.922703.com | www.759837.com | www.661967.com | www.484321.com | www.316581.com | www.264824.com | www.082877.com | www.28626.com | www.54vy.com | www.65za.com | www.gi77.com | www.tj88.cc | www.276077.com | www.135906.com | www.111843.com | www.27715.com | www.5755.me | www.6768.hk | www.0987.wang | www.0585.xyz | www.22yb.com | 13427.com | 60117.com | www.904631.com | www.674849.com | www.499996.com | www.320067.com | www.270355.com | www.051332.com | www.100348.com | www.002372.com | www.12766.cc | www.638968.com | www.576400.com | www.341799.com | www.123009.com | www.388494.com | www.270035.com | www.257655.com | www.055342.com | www.52513.cc | www.8870.biz | 584842.com | www.099004.com | www.353583.com | www.327440.com | www.246192.com | www.070807.com | www.018095.com | www.280991.com | www.515471.com | www.289924.com | www.085515.com | www.41739.com | www.91ot.com | www.bt14.com | 942020.com | 614847.com | www.897931.com | www.670218.com | www.458033.com | www.209563.com | www.025014.com | www.7882.pw | www.p24.tv | 356419.com | 952461.com | www.917348.com | www.773947.com | www.572999.com | www.351666.cc | www.158684.com | www.020437.com | www.05888.com | www.89ye.com | www.ig31.com | 576470.com | www.990674.com | www.755199.com | www.508405.com | www.273265.com | www.029127.com | www.7954.vip | www.f31.xyz | www.cai90.com | 403689.com | www.922326.com | www.670024.com | www.422811.com | www.208619.com | www.015910.com | www.4966.vip | www.ts47.com | 630253.com | 845639.com | www.868713.com | www.620773.com | www.347606.com | www.096448.com | www.27221.com | www.4035.cc | www.rr06.com | www.cp2828.com | wm9.com | www.996540.com | www.767587.com | www.509796.com | www.237030.com | www.89474.com | www.2942.shop | www.rs72.com | 980951.com | 众彩网www.88065c.com | 948427.com | www.889190.com | www.653502.com | www.438588.com | www.257705.com | www.077412.com | www.9678.bid | www.00uw.com | zc07.cc | 2979.biz | 942798.com | www.899193.com | www.637515.com | www.335589.com | www.089905.com | www.6128.biz | www.tp65.com | 262330.com | www.959419.com | www.745935.com | www.471875.com | www.207218.com | www.69276.com | www.98vi.com | E彩堂www.43818r.com | 945673.com | www.956061.com | www.712965.com | www.460274.com | www.444725.com | www.244569.com | www.93399.com | www.435.in | www.iz79.com | cai4949.com | 528828.com | www.889580.com | www.645683.com | www.388915.com | www.118403.com | www.18555.cc | www.52ua.com | 246878.com | 0707.pw | www.914422.com | www.663941.com | www.365328.cc | www.095261.com | www.8588.me | www.p28.com | 818合彩www.www.9889hc.com | 313677.com | www.685235.com | 3261.biz | www.953408.com | www.790318.com | 7545.me | 233413.com | 478984.com | www.85dk.com | www.dj34.com | www.118336.com | www.5694.com | www.or94.com | www.94wn.com | www.63qc.com | www.71996.com | 475335.com | www.993741.com | www.610860.com | www.676403.com | www.nh71.com | 614768.com | www.019527.com | www.8613.biz | www.0819.vip | www.kp10.com | 807146.com | 952490.com | www.968722.com | www.772476.com | www.520195.com | www.224918.com | www.95258.com | www.1755.me | www.me45.com | 750199.com | www.44iu.com | 590435.com | 578309.com | www.976639.com | www.696722.com | www.412643.com | www.190228.com | www.64036.com | www.54rn.com | 818合彩www.www.5666hc.com | 630529.com | www.987615.com | www.742178.com | www.464287.com | www.151065.com | www.53617.cc | www.09wn.com | 277849.com | 026860.com | www.871806.com | www.560591.com | www.250079.com | www.98972.com | www.92td.com | 953309.com | www.007711.com | www.729415.com | www.387180.com | www.055108.com | www.2479.vip | 500彩票www.641277.com | www.55547.com | www.929777.com | www.618497.com | www.330032.com | www.008349.com | www.89ev.com | 博友彩www.575872.com | 992387.com | 948203.com | 6371.biz | 994943.com | www.872528.com | www.553514.com | www.233242.com | www.69493.cc | www.1515.love | www.aj8.cc | 2937.biz | www.817983.com | www.488098.com | www.101026.com | www.6026.org | www.bh46.cc | 983471.com | www.851995.com | www.435676.com | www.156607.com | www.64487.com | www.25az.com | 538513.com | www.962969.com | www.615062.com | www.275566.com | www.87626.com | www.61se.cc | 884985.com | 04904.com | www.854429.com | www.567201.com | www.230917.com | www.41406.com | www.24yi.com | 072502.com | 675795.com | 233890.com | www.67qy.com | dh4.cc | 351139.com | www.246693.com | www.151198.com | www.100577.com | www.28950.com | www.309230.com | www.pz87.com | www.63800.com | www.699273.com | www.978284.com | www.761053.com | www.415103.com | 55453.com | 623032.com | www.782770.com | www.hz3.com | 547920.com | www.ff39.com | www.991318.com | www.769883.com | www.501772.com | www.371732.com | www.342540.com | 944589.com | www.780797.com | www.212793.com | www.2872.cn | 189867.com | www.197522.com | www.vq71.com | 167383.com | 050334.com | www.856968.com | 4269.biz | www.626448.com | 878213.com | www.541498.com | www.746868.com | www.812027.com | www.po67.com | 585992.com | www.831108.com | www.942456.com | www.729467.com | www.406518.com | www.604609.com | www.21952.cc | www.8gd.com | 凤凰彩票www.88266p.com | 590753.com | www.90391.com | 好彩www.60123q.com | www.071638.com | www.961465.com | www.490553.com | sk77.com | www.708400.com | www.705342.com | www.977069.com | www.804799.com | 997624.com | www.eg23.com | 258868.com | www.432177.com | www.09tv.com | 974417.com | 654051.com | www.825552.com | www.441167.com | www.89957.cc | www.63783.cc | 984402.com | www.830303.com | 34511.com | www.wi34.com | vd82.com | www.744413.com | www.778154.com | www.579406.com | www.659545.com | www.983234.com | www.794306.com | www.604514.com | www.934679.com | www.841896.com | www.f72.club | www.531138.com | 269091.com | www.254131.com | www.88629.com | www.7871.cc | 网易彩票www.26163f.com | 389944.com | www.174149.com | www.619372.com | www.882800.com | www.193012.com | www.183268.com | 998105.com | 864805.com | www.g34.cc | www.222562.com | www.490224.com | www.53191.cc | www.35713.com | www.208551.com | www.541127.com | www.62223.com | 579307.com | www.807018.com | www.566241.com | www.162150.com | www.86789.com | www.317026.com | www.397574.com | www.260026.com | www.049078.com | www.171739.com | www.505135.com | www.263508.com | www.952985.com | 672652.com | www.185515.com | www.775270.com | www.489631.com | www.823927.com | www.206012.com | www.91840.com | www.zp44.com | www.744482.com | www.537342.com | www.020802.com | www.666607.cc | 众发彩票www.658zf.com | 771404.com | www.895448.com | www.c91.cn | 561985.com | www.93634.com | www.k56.net | 至尊彩票www.156050.com | 201450.com | www.419347.com | www.85ru.com | www.69682.com | www.331142.com | www.80404.com | www.7491.cc | www.cp524.cc | www.291169.com | www.700033.cc | www.744473.com | www.711917.com | www.773250.com | 220443.com | 865141.com | www.979546.com | www.613316.com | www.227753.com | www.170669.com | www.312006.com | www.027130.com | www.053755.com | www.8647.vip | www.92359.cc | www.37598.com | www.h78.club | www.583550.com | www.771665.com | www.818042.com | www.189630.com | www.4941.xyz | www.vr37.com | www.631132.com | www.ud94.com | 057831.com | 791439.com | 2669.wang | www.ro70.com | www.50gf.com | 026095.com | 727630.com | www.968460.com | www.cp261.com | www.992887.com | www.607962.com | www.199327.com | www.091701.com | www.181277.com | www.070.cm | 176386.com | www.159826.com | www.741011.com | www.788905.com | www.391013.com | www.518131.com | www.446762.com | www.441135.com | www.4681.vip | www.886180.com | www.746329.com | www.036110.com | 539831.com | 19550.com | www.124833.com | 天天彩票www.1035y.com | 254739.com | 634949.com | www.571851.com | www.57kt.com | 263205.com | www.7487.loan | www.dv1.com | 220618.com | www.579904.com | www.298186.com | www.155566.com | www.254129.com | www.480091.com | www.122822.cc | www.61261.com | www.31995.com | www.253426.com | www.711741.com | www.78381.cc | www.062510.com | www.46fy.com | www.004442.com | www.kr53.com | 618745.com | www.794579.com | www.119827.com | www.1913.net | www.ad60.com | 吉利彩票www.80075e.com | eu34.com | 567068.com | www.905025.com | www.633906.com | www.325229.com | www.89307.com | www.k49.top | 913365.com | www.817850.com | www.557633.com | www.131162.com | www.4214.biz | www.cp9697.com | 550472.com | www.913536.com | www.570435.com | www.166029.com | www.6334.biz | 汇彩网www.www.hcw266.com | 046399.com | www.979615.com | www.587375.com | www.217345.com | www.76772.cc | www.v62.com | 968620.com | www.969445.com | www.565803.com | www.138482.com | www.1932.top | 633016.com | 017895.com | www.947283.com | www.605322.com | www.293122.com | www.83999.cc | www.v09.org | 585195.com | www.ob15.com | www.018961.com | www.2606.vip | 166476.com | www.876700.com | www.4618.club | www.339425.com | www.995705.com | www.lw07.com | www.hk88.cc | 818合彩www.www.8000hc.com | 814178.com | www.964471.com | www.687871.com | www.296520.com | www.32285.cc | www.k93.com | 139461.com | www.930067.com | www.545379.com | www.137137.com | www.6038.biz | www.cai5596.com | 949801.com | www.832303.com | www.468096.com | www.103908.com | www.92hr.com | 彩票大家乐www.21202c.com | 7431234.com | www.875473.com | www.425551.com | www.043138.com | www.44sd.com | 182134.com | 799956.com | www.893776.com | www.556131.com | www.143076.com | www.1408.com | www.9910.com | www.5867.com | 351337.com | www.63qh.com | 789464.com | 08hv.com | www.4lz.com | www.49ss.com | 628247.com | www.834629.com | www.356394.com | www.304747.com | www.125311.com | www.339.hk | www.1068.com | www.ue77.com | www.40et.com | 亚投彩票www.ya033.com | 011541.com | www.776272.com | www.525338.com | 553186.com | www.930933.com | www.430714.com | www.050013.com | www.y00.top | 075589.com | 861002.com | www.910519.com | www.532102.com | www.93731.cc | www.30bs.com | 355740.com | www.918187.com | www.480347.com | www.54255.cc | www.8lv.cc | 433037.com | www.819706.com | www.313952.com | www.7458.me | www.cai1666.cc | www.979418.com | www.454915.com | www.53279.cc | 大赢家彩票平台www.756059.com | www.973294.com | www.506153.com | www.027733.com | www.53be.com | 636089.com | www.762892.com | www.306206.com | www.27381.cc | 993386.com | www.911662.com | www.541048.com | www.112994.com | www.97150.com | www.cn15.com | www.943009.com | www.254362.com | www.0812.biz | 773952.com | www.844595.com | www.333822.com | www.86060.cc | www.ij6.cc | www.949893.com | www.483925.com | www.002688.cc | www.14fd.com | 036592.com | www.781559.com | www.257319.com | www.483.xyz | 126770.com | www.895131.com | www.329124.com | www.02415.com | 彩69www.215463.com | 073605.com | www.580528.com | www.106033.com | www.51dx.com | 025370.com | www.650087.com | www.124090.com | www.67pk.com | 760726.com | 024440.com | www.pd20.com | 090768.com | www.09ta.com | www.984167.com | www.309048.com | www.56352.cc | www.006421.com | www.yl71.com | 659580.com | 578766.com | www.609512.com | www.029278.com | www.tl78.com | 262561.com | www.lm95.com | 341990.com | www.912478.com | www.842079.com | www.403344.com | www.114017.com | www.3104.me | www.14lq.com | 400774.com | www.896635.com | www.958184.com | www.983134.com | 017850.com | www.379629.com | www.td82.com | ux35.com | www.408432.com | www.150542.com | 160172.com | www.8